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Old 05-18-2006, 11:36 AM   #1
NYCshopper
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Default GM Powertrain Unveils 3.6-Liter VVT Engine With Direct Injection

GM Powertrain Unveils 3.6-Liter VVT Engine With Direct Injection

Quote:
PONTIAC , Mich. May 18, 2006; GM Powertrain announced today it will deliver a 3.6-liter V-6 gasoline engine with direct injection and variable valve timing (VVT) technologies in the 2008 model year. A vehicle application will be announced later in the year.

Additionally, it was forecast that by the end of 2008, GM will produce as many as 200,000 vehicles globally with direct injection technology, and by 2010, GM projects one out of every six GM vehicles in North America will be equipped with a direct injection engine.

The application of direct injection technology to the 3.6-liter VVT engine – a member of GM Powertrain’s family of high-feature V-6 powerplants used on cars and trucks around the world – contributes greatly to a 15-percent increase in horsepower over the current levels that range from 240 to 267; an 8-percent increase in torque, and up to a 3-percent improvement in brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). An approximate 25-percent reduction in cold-start hydrocarbon emissions is also achieved.

With direct injection, precisely metered fuel is delivered directly to the combustion chamber, which has a cooling effect in the chamber. Cooling the incoming air charge enables a higher compression ratio, which also improves engine efficiency. Less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional port injection combustion system.

“The 3.6-liter VVT with direct injection will be our highest specific output non-turbocharged V-6 engine, as well as one of the most fuel-efficient offerings in our high-feature family,” said Tim Cyrus, chief engineer for high feature V-6 and Northstar V-8 engines. “It’s the latest example of our strategy to continue to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy without sacrificing performance.”

This is GM’s third engine with gasoline direct injection. The announcement of the 3.6L VVT V-6 with direct injection comes on the heels of the introduction of GM Powertrain’s Ecotec 2.0-liter four-cylinder Turbo engine with direct injection on the 2007 Saturn Sky Red Line and Pontiac Solstice GXP roadsters. Also, since 2004, a naturally aspirated Ecotec 2.2-liter direct injection engine is equipped on Opel models in Europe.

How direct injection works

Direct injection differs from the fuel delivery process of a conventional engine by delivering fuel directly into the engine cylinder, where it is mixed with air. The combustion process of conventional fuel injected engines uses air and fuel that partially evaporates in the intake port or intake manifold prior to being introduced into the combustion chamber. Direct injection is a continuation of the evolutionary process of moving the fuel introduction point closer to the cylinder to improve control.

With the 3.6-liter VVT with direct injection, fuel is introduced directly to the cylinder during the intake stroke. As the piston approaches top-dead center, the mixture is ignited by the spark plug.

The fuel injectors are located beneath the intake ports. The intake ports only transfer air, unlike port fuel injection, which flows air and fuel, thus increasing efficiency. D irect injection also permits a slightly higher compression ratio than if the fuel were delivered with conventional fuel injection. The result is better fuel consumption at part and full throttle. The engine uses conventional spark plugs similar to other high-feature V6 engines.

A high-pressure, returnless fuel system is employed. It features a high-strength stainless steel fuel line that feeds a variable-pressure fuel rail. Direct injection requires higher fuel pressure than conventional fuel injected engines and an engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump is used to supply up to 1,740 psi (120 bar) of pressure. The system regulates lower fuel pressure at idle – approximately 508 psi (35 bar) and higher pressure at wide-open throttle. The exhaust cam-driven high-pressure pump works in conjunction with a conventional fuel tank-mounted supply pump.

Direct injection’s fuel delivery enables very efficient combustion to help reduce emissions, particularly on cold starts – the time when most tailpipe emissions are typically created. Also, direct injection permits a higher compression ratio – greater than 11.0:1 in the case of the 3.6 – which has a positive influence on fuel economy.

3.6-liter VVT DI

The 3.6-liter VVT DI is based on GM Powertrain’s sophisticated 60-degree dual overhead cam (DOHC) V-6 engine. It is the latest member of a growing family of GM Powertrain V-6 engines developed for applications around the world, drawing on the best practices and creative expertise of GM technical centers in Australia, Germany, North America and Sweden.

Features found on the 3.6-liter VVT DI include:

Aluminum engine block and cylinder heads
Dual overhead cams with four valves per cylinder and silent chain primary drive
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump
Advanced multi-outlet fuel injectors developed to withstand high pressure and heat
Stainless steel, variable pressure fuel rail
Four-cam phasing (VVT – see description below)
11.3:1 compression ratio
Aluminum pistons with floating wrist pins and oil squirters
Polymer coated piston skirts
Forged steel crankshaft
Sinter-forged connecting rods
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
Electronic throttle control with integrated cruise control
Coil-on-plug ignition
Advanced direct injection capable engine control module (ECM)
Optimized exhaust manifolds with close-coupled catalytic converters
Fully isolated composite camshaft covers
Outstanding noise, vibration and harshness control
Maximum durability with minimum maintenance
Common manufacturing practices for efficiency and exceptional quality
Four-cam phasing

The 3.6-liter V-6 VVT DI employs four-cam phasing to change the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary. The result is linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (maximum horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response and driveability. When combined, direct injection and cam phasing technologies enable an unmatched combination of power, efficiency and low-emissions in gasoline V-6 engines.

Cam phasing pays big dividends in reducing exhaust emissions by optimizing exhaust valve overlap and eliminating the need for a separate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system.

By closing the exhaust valves late at appropriate times, the cam phasers allow the engine to draw the desired amount of exhaust gas back into the combustion chamber, reducing unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The return of exhaust gases also decreases peak temperatures, which contributes to the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions. In tandem with the dramatic 25-percent reduction in cold-start hydrocarbon emissions brought on by direct injection, the 3.6-liter VVT DI V-6 surpasses all emissions mandates, and does so without complex, weight-increasing emissions control systems such as EGR and air injection reaction (AIR).
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Old 05-18-2006, 11:45 AM   #2
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So I guess this is the first of the 19
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Old 05-18-2006, 12:38 PM   #3
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I guess this will be used on the next gen CTS? And some Opels and maybe even Saabs.
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Old 05-18-2006, 12:44 PM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Len
I guess this will be used on the next gen CTS? And some Opels and maybe even Saabs.
Suspect it'll be a replacement for the 3.8L that goes into everything...
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Old 05-18-2006, 01:22 PM   #5
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you would think if they were going to finally release a "high-tech" engine, it would at least put out a decent amount of hp/l.

guess not.
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Old 05-18-2006, 01:45 PM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by happasaiyan
you would think if they were going to finally release a "high-tech" engine, it would at least put out a decent amount of hp/l.

guess not.
Quote:
The 3.6-liter VVT with direct injection will be our highest specific output non-turbocharged V-6 engine
Depends on your definition of "decent", I guess.
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Old 05-18-2006, 01:51 PM   #7
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I dunno the toyota camary makes 268hp on 3.5L seems pretty similiar at 76.5hp/L vs 74.5HP/L for the GM motor.

Granted honda makes 244hp out of 3.0L (81hp/L) , but they've always had the best specific output.

I bet the GM motor makes tons more torque than the honda motor too.
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Old 05-18-2006, 02:05 PM   #8
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307hp and about 280tq. Seems pretty good to me. If that isn't a decent amount of hp/l and tq/l what comparable engine does have a decent amount? Nothing that I can think of fron Honda, Nissan, BMW, Daimler Chrysler, etc have more. The only one I can think of that is slightly more hp/l (approx 2%) and comparable tq/l is the engine in the IS350.
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Old 05-18-2006, 02:07 PM   #9
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contributes greatly to a 15-percent increase in horsepower over the current levels that range from 240 to 267;

Current level is 267hp a 15 percent increase is 307hp. That is 85.3 hp/l.
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Old 05-18-2006, 02:59 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hawke
307hp and about 280tq. Seems pretty good to me. If that isn't a decent amount of hp/l and tq/l what comparable engine does have a decent amount? Nothing that I can think of fron Honda, Nissan, BMW, Daimler Chrysler, etc have more. The only one I can think of that is slightly more hp/l (approx 2%) and comparable tq/l is the engine in the IS350.
BMW M3 engine. 3.2 liter and 333HP.

Krzys
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Old 05-18-2006, 03:05 PM   #11
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i read it as they are up 15% and at the 240-267hp range. maybe im wrong.

honda gets 240-250 from their 3.0L, 260-290 from their 3.2L, and 290+ from their 3.5L...

...all with pretty conservative technology (ie- simple sohc vtec, no DI, etc).
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Old 05-18-2006, 03:06 PM   #12
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Whoops - I read the article wrong. Looks like Hawke is correct.
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Old 05-18-2006, 03:12 PM   #13
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Aluminum block and heads
DOCH w/ 4v
VVT Phasing cams
Direct Injection
11.3:1 compression ratio
Aluminum pistons w/ OIL Squirters
Coil on plug ignition

Not a bad engine, especially for GM, I think its a step in the right direction. A step in the right direction is rare for GM as of late, so I think thats alteast a bright spot for them to be comended on.
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Old 05-18-2006, 03:44 PM   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hawke
contributes greatly to a 15-percent increase in horsepower over the current levels that range from 240 to 267;

Current level is 267hp a 15 percent increase is 307hp. That is 85.3 hp/l.
Not bad, though Subaru has had a 3.0L out for 2 years that makes 83.3 hp/L

GM has been known to make some good engines. Sadly they won't bring the 2.2L Ecotec Diesel to the US.
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Old 05-18-2006, 04:00 PM   #15
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But what is the TQ figures and curves for those other engines?? Peak HP is easy to make with enough RPMS.
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Old 05-18-2006, 04:19 PM   #16
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Quote:
Originally Posted by krzyss
BMW M3 engine. 3.2 liter and 333HP.

Krzys
Forgot about that engine. And it has more tq/l too.
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Old 05-18-2006, 06:50 PM   #17
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and better gas mileage
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Old 05-18-2006, 09:06 PM   #18
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This is very much a step in the right direction - and the HP numbers are not just "adequate" but actually very competitive with the best from car makers like Toyota - specifically that 3.5L that was already mentioned that is being put into the new Rav4 and Avalon.

I definitly do not see the half-ass job that GM usually does.

I was definitly expecting to see Direct Injection to be another engine technology that GM was scrambling to catch up on, but the Sky's DI 2L turbo and this new 3.6L NA DI engine are definitly good news.
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Old 05-18-2006, 10:00 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by krzyss
BMW M3 engine. 3.2 liter and 333HP.

Krzys
That engine is hand-built in limited supply. It is not a coincidence that BMW decided to make the M coupe/roadster with that engine in it at the same time the current M3 is discontinued. I have to say it's irrelevant to compare it to the mass produced engines like the GM one we are talking about.
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Old 05-18-2006, 10:01 PM   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hawke
Forgot about that engine. And it has more tq/l too.
The PR was worded carefully... it said V6... the m3 engine is an I6. If you know any M3 owners, its not exactly the most reliable engine either.
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Old 05-19-2006, 09:54 AM   #21
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Silly question time: BSFC uses the brake horsepower in its calculations as opposed to effective horsepower, which is why it is "brake-specific" fuel consumption, correct? Just curious.
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Old 05-19-2006, 10:12 AM   #22
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Quote:
Originally Posted by registering
Silly question time: BSFC uses the brake horsepower in its calculations as opposed to effective horsepower, which is why it is "brake-specific" fuel consumption, correct? Just curious.
Yep. Pounds of fuel per hour per brake horsepower. Where the number comes into play is in calculating expected mileage based on design loads from transmission losses, accessory loads, and aerodynamics. IOW, if a particular car needs say... 30bhp to maintain a 60mph speed and has a BSFC of .35, then it would use 10.5 lbs of fuel to cover 60 miles, and at 6.25lbs/gallon that's 1.68 gallons, or about 35.7mpg. Reduce that power requirement, or improve the BSFC and mileage increases...
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Old 05-19-2006, 10:41 AM   #23
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Thanks.
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Old 05-19-2006, 10:47 AM   #24
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How can anyone forget about the first few years of the Honda S2000 when it was a 2.0(newer ones are 2.2) liter making 240hp?
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Old 05-19-2006, 06:12 PM   #25
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Quote:
Originally Posted by SupersayianNeo
How can anyone forget about the first few years of the Honda S2000 when it was a 2.0(newer ones are 2.2) liter making 240hp?
I don't think anyone is forgetting that engine at all - but huge difference between a limited production, car-specific engine like that Honda motor, and this engine that GM anounced which is a mass produced engine that will probably be used in a large percent of their vehicles - including mid-line family sedans and probably in some of their trucks.

A fair comparison would be to compare this GM engine with engines that appear in mid-sized Honda and Toyota sedans and coupes. And when you do that, this engine seems quite competitive.
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