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Old 11-03-2019, 06:57 AM   #1
AVANTI R5
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Default In and out with 10-minute electrical vehicle recharge


In a battery, ions flows from the cathode to the anode, resulting in a positive energy charge for the unit. IMAGE: CHAO-YANG WANG LAB, PENN STATE


Quote:
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Electric vehicle owners may soon be able to pull into a fueling station, plug their car in, go to the restroom, get a cup of coffee and in 10 minutes, drive out with a fully charged battery, according to a team of engineers.

"We demonstrated that we can charge an electrical vehicle in ten minutes for a 200 to 300 mile range," said Chao-Yang Wang, William E. Diefenderfer Chair of mechanical engineering, professor of chemical engineering and professor of materials science and engineering, and director of the Electrochemical Engine Center at Penn State. "And we can do this maintaining 2,500 charging cycles, or the equivalent of half a million miles of travel."

Lithium-ion batteries degrade when rapidly charged at ambient temperatures under 50 degrees Fahrenheit because, rather than the lithium ions smoothly being inserted into the carbon anodes, the lithium deposits in spikes on the anode surface. This lithium plating reduces cell capacity, but also can cause electrical spikes and unsafe battery conditions.

Batteries heated above the lithium plating threshold, whether by external or internal heating, will not exhibit lithium plating.

The researchers had previously developed their battery to charge at 50 degrees F in 15 minutes. Charging at higher temperatures would be more efficient, but long periods of high heat also degrade the batteries.

"Fast charging is the key to enabling wide spread introduction of electric vehicles," said Wang.

Wang and his team realized that if the batteries could heat up to 140 degrees F for only 10 minutes and then rapidly cool to ambient temperatures, lithium spikes would not form and heat degradation of the battery would also not occur. They report their results in today's (Oct 30) issue of Joule.

"Taking this battery to the extreme of 60 degrees Celsius (140 degrees F) is forbidden in the battery arena," said Wang. "It is too high and considered a danger to the materials and would shorten battery life drastically."

The rapid cooling of the battery would be accomplished using the cooling system designed into the car, explained Wang. The large difference from 140 degrees to about 75 degrees F will also help increase the speed of cooling.

"The 10-minute trend is for the future and is essential for adoption of electric vehicles because it solves the range anxiety problem," said Wang.

Adding to the reduction of range anxiety — fear of running out of power with no way or time to recharge — will be, according to Reuters, the establishment of 2,800 charging stations across the U.S., funded by the more than $2 billion penalty paid by Volkswagen after admitting to diesel emissions cheating. These charging stations will be in 500 locations.

The self-heating battery uses a thin nickel foil with one end attached to the negative terminal and the other extending outside the cell to create a third terminal. A temperature sensor attached to a switch causes electrons to flow through the nickel foil to complete the circuit. This rapidly heats up the nickel foil through resistance heating and warms the inside of the battery.

Also working on this project from Penn State are Xiao-Guang Yang, assistant research professor; Teng Liu, graduate student; Yue Gao, post-doctoral scholar; Shanhai Ge, assistant researcher professor; Yongjun Leng, assistant research professor; and Donghai Wang, professor, all in the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

The U.S. Department of Energy supported this work.
https://news.psu.edu/story/594641/20...hicle-recharge
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Old 11-03-2019, 07:10 AM   #2
AVANTI R5
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Default Human Battery

I didn’t want start a different new thread put it with above thread


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It's wonderfully exciting to think about the potential for harvesting humans for their energy--an idea made famous by the movie The Matrix. But leave it to science to ruin a perfectly good movie. As it turns out, humans are one of the most inefficient power sources available, and our vital energy isn't going to be powering the world--or the evil machines--any time soon.

But we understand the fascination with this human battery concept.

The search for cleaner energy, limitless energy, and cheaper energy has reached a fever pitch, and the great minds of science are exploring all avenues of how to generate this premium energy. In their quest to discover new ways of supplying energy to the world, we stumble on some pretty far out ideas--and Hollywood has given us some of the more colorful ideas.

Some of these theoretical ideas have even inspired real-life developments, which has given rise to the sensible question, is this even possible?

In the Matrix, machines have successfully overthrown their masters, and have harnessed the energy of humans to power their world. Rows and rows of humans are seen in tanks, connected to hoses to siphon off whatever energy a human body could create. The humans, unaware of their situation, are in a dream state, living their life solely through their imagination.

Morpheus, Laurence Fishburne’s character in the movie, explains it thusly:

"The human body generates more bio electricity than a 120-volt battery and over 25000 BTUs of body heat. Combined with a form of fusion the machines had found all the energy they would ever need."

And that sounds great! The part about the battery output, not the part about the evil robots using you as a power source. The preoccupation with battery advancements is understandable.

Science continues to work on coming up with a better battery. All types of batteries today--including both ones that we use today and ones that are in development--have at least one major drawback, creating a kind of Goldilocks scenario. The material is expensive to mine. The material is expensive to recycle. The battery doesn’t work in the cold. The battery doesn’t last very long in between charges. The battery can spontaneously explode. The battery takes too long to charge. The battery is too big. The list is seemingly endless--unfortunately so for the transportation sector, which has been desperately waiting for a mass adoption of electric cars, busses, vans, semis, and planes.

It’s no wonder why the possibility of the Matrix proposition holds the interest of many, robot masters aside.

But no worries. As it turns out, those evil machines can’t take over the world using yourself against you. And here’s why some have called this particular battery idea utter nonsense.

As it turns out, humans suck at being batteries, even while we are in a evil-machine-induced coma and have nothing else to do except for imagining our way through life. Go ahead and add that to your list of things you suck at.

I guess we don’t put out nearly as much power as Morpheus suggested. Lies, all lies!

Morpheus said the net energy output of a human is 315 W of power. At 7.7 billion people on the planet, that would be a total energy output of 2,425,500,000,000 W. Or 2.4255 terawatts. But that’s just not true. Humans are lousy energy converters, and estimates are that humans can convert fuel (food) into energy at a 25% efficiency rate.

That ranks us somewhere above the fluorescent lamp and under the engine of a car. Frankly, we expected better.
Related: Protect The Oil: Trump’s Top Priority In The Middle East

Real science--as opposed to Hollywood science--suggests that all the people on the planet--combined--would generate far less, no more than 0.6 terawatts on a best-case scenario. We’re not sure whether we should be relieved that this means the motive for using us as batteries is unremarkable, or whether we should be concerned that someone has already investigated how much power humans could generate.

The problem with the conversion and why we’re not so good at it is because human bodies need energy too. We need food. Energy in, energy out. But while we consume a significant amount of food even in our resting state, only 25% of this is converted into energy, in the form of heat. And that’s assuming these machines have found a way to capture that heat and use it as energy.

Even so, work on the human battery idea is moving forward, in an attempt to get around the battery bottleneck that is holding up electronic advancements. We’d like to think these experiments will not involve evil machine overlords.

The Matrix 4 has just been announced, and science aside, we are expecting even more crazy energy ideas this go around.
EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY CONVERSION
https://personal.ems.psu.edu/~radovic/Chapter4.pdf
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Old 11-04-2019, 02:36 PM   #3
Masterauto
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Been hearing this since the 80s, get out your dream Pipes kids China and Japan seem to be going Hydrogen system
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Old 11-04-2019, 04:13 PM   #4
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The department of energy sponsored a study by CA Polytech about where battery Energy density was at the time, and asked for updates each year.

An interesting milestone was reached in 2009 where current EV's had a "higher deliverable mechanical energy density " due to overall powertrain weight reduction and energy efficiency.

That was for mileage under 119 miles for standard US Compact car standards. Since then that number has crept up to ~240 miles, and is expected to by 300+ miles by 2022.
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