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Old 06-12-2016, 03:14 PM   #1
Kampfzentrum
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Default The Ultimate Thread for AVLS Engine Swapping



I’ve taken it upon myself to start this write up due to the difficulty in finding any concrete information about the ALVS system and retrofitting it to older Subaru models whose ECUs don’t support the activation of it. For those interested, this write up is for those who have older Imprezas (and other models with the EJ253 engine) prior to MY06 that do not have AVLS (i-Active Valve Lift System; “i” is for Intelligent) installed. Where this write up would be used is in the case of transplanting a newer EJ253 engine into an older vehicle and seeing to it operating as it was meant to. Ideally, I have found that leaving the AVLS alone still makes the vehicle drivable, but for those looking to squeeze a bit more power out of the engine, harnessing the use of AVLS technology can be a bit beneficial.

NOTE: Swapping a newer engine with AVLS will require some modifications to the motor itself (i.e. cam pulley, crankshaft sprocket, etc.) and will be briefly glossed over at the end of this write up. Please see the section below “ENGINE MODIFICATION”.

I have found a bit of information online, most of which came from NASIOC and Teslamaster’s write up on AVLS (which can be found here). This article describes in probably the best way how the system works technically and has been a resource throughout my swap; but, as you can see from the article’s conclusion, Teslamaster states that modifying the AVLS (i.e. specifically when the AVLS kicks in) is not worth it. But for those that would be interested in this article, his conclusion does not concern you, as if you were to be doing this swap you would not even have the AVLS activated. His article states that for those who have a car with AVLS installed and running off of the ECU, it is not beneficial to modify when the AVLS kicks in; but for us who are retrofitting older cars with newer technology, having the AVLS working is definitely worth it. For what it is worth, I refer the reader to this article as it is worth the read in getting to know more about your AVLS system.



Now, as you can see from Teslamaster’s article, the ECU kicks the AVLS on based on RPMs and engine load, but was averaged out to kick on between 1500-2500 RPMs. For the sake of this write up, I will place the RPM level the AVLS will kick on at 2200 RPMs; now, once you have concluded this swap you will be able to adjust the time when the AVLS kicks in, several factors will determine this that I will cover. What basically we will be doing is installing an aftermarket unit (I will refer you to the MSD Digital RPM Activated Window Switch, P/N: 8969, but there are others out there) that will turn on the AVLS based on its monitoring of your engine’s RPMs. This way, the AVLS is able to be activated without an expensive and time-consuming ECU/harness swap. It’s simple, really.

The materials needed to do this is:



  • · MSD Digital RPM Activated Window Switch, P/N: 8969 (1)
  • · Standard automobile relay switch (with terminals 30, 85, 86, and 87)
  • · 18 AWG wire (several dozen feet)
  • · Wire terminal connector kit
  • · Miscellaneous wiring tools (crimping/cutting tool, heat shrink sleeve, etc.)

The first thing you will want to do is find a location where to place your MSD Switch. I liked the idea of mounting it in the vehicle and mounted it where the passenger sun visor was, which enabled me to switch my RPM limits on the go, but others I know have placed them in the glove box and even in the engine bay (not recommended in states that use salt on roads). Once you have installed, you will have to find a 12v power supply to power the unit (through the red wire) and also ground that supply out (black wire) – there should be a OEM grounding point almost anywhere near where you decide to place it (you can consult your vehicle’s FSM for grounding points).

Once you have the MSD Switch powered, you must set it up for the type of engine it will be monitoring. The MSD Switch is able to see a variety of multi-cylindered engines and will have no problem monitoring your Subaru’s RPMs. However, what you may think will be a 4-cylinder setting on your MSD Switch will actually be wrong. Because Subaru motors fire two cylinders at the same time per cycle, the system is referred to as a “waste spark” system and will need to be set up as a 2-cylinder cycle. Setting this on your MSD Switch is quite simple if you consult the OEM manual with should come with your switch and is also available in .pdf form all over the Internet. While you are setting your MSD Switch, set the “RPM on” for 2200 and “RPM off” for 14000 (a limit that your engine should never exceed as you don’t want it to turn off after 2200 RPMs). Now that your switch is set, let’s move on.

Your first difficult task is to get your MSD Switch to see your vehicles RPMs (via the white wire on your switch); to do this you can tap into your ECU’s tachometer wire, but finding this was quite difficult and I scrapped the idea once venturing into the multitude of wires that came from it. I instead went with splicing into one of the wires that powered the engines coil pack; there should be a total of four (4) wires that go into the connector that mates with the coil pack, after some trial and error I found that the blue wire (on my MY04 Impreza TS) was the wire that I needed (your vehicle may have different wire colors and I will almost assume so). Having the MSD Switch now wired, you should be able to see the switch read in real time your RPMs on the digital readout. Having this feature was – for me – a cool factor in having it visibly mounted in the cockpit of my car.

Now, all that is left is wiring up the AVLS system and done, right? Well, to do this right let’s do it right. Technically, you could take the yellow (normally open signal) wire from your MSD unit and connect it to the AVLS terminals, but doing this puts strain on the switch and I recommend bolstering the power supply to the AVLS with a relay switch. For the manner in which we are going to wire up the rest of this, you may tie off the grey (normally closed) wire and tuck it harmlessly away. The wiring to your relay switch will be:

· Terminal 30: 12v power supply (from battery)
· Terminal 85: Fused 12v power supply (from battery)
· Terminal 86: Yellow (normally open) wire from MSD Switch
· Terminal 87: Out-going wire to AVLS terminal on the OSV (Oil Switching Solenoid Valve)

To make sure that you have wired the relay switch up correctly, start up your car and rev the RPMs past the 2200 limit you have set, a friend standing near the relay should be able to hear the click of the relay switch turning on giving you a sign you have wired everything correctly. Having a friend with some electrical experience nearby is important (thanks Scott!), as troubleshooting your system in case it doesn’t appear to be working

Now, as far as the OSV wiring, if you can secure the pigtails from another harness, you are in luck as connecting the wires to the OSV on the block is a bit of a pain. As you should know, there are two total (looking at the engine from the front, one is to the left rear of the RH cylinder head and the other is on the right front of the LH cylinder head) Which terminal to connect to – in my understanding – is irrelevant, as current simply just needs to pass through the OSV. In final, with the opposing terminal you need to ground the power supply.

Testing to see if your AVLS is working is simply relegated to the butt dyno, meaning that you should feel the AVLS kick slightly in around your RPM set limit. You can test with a multimeter the wiring going to the AVLS to make sure there is a signal, but other than that there is no real way (that I know of) to assure that your AVLS is functioning correctly.

Last mention: Because the AVLS is activated by a 300Hz PWM signal from the ECU, it has been said that the OSVs will “burn out” over time. Because of this, it is my advice that you set the “RPM on” limit up to 3200 RPMs; this advice was given to me from a friend who has over 25k miles on his swap and is still running fine. For the EJ253 engine, setting the “RPM on” at 3200 is perfectly reasonable, if you watch when you need the added power, this is a perfect limit and will not be activated at times when unneeded.

ENGINE MODIFICATION: The engine that I put into my 2004 Impreza TS was from a 2010 Impreza 2.5i. To make this work I essentially had to use my existing intake manifold and use it with the new motor; so essentially you have to use just the long block and keep the existing intake manifold and engine subharness. Trying to swap a newer intake manifold will just create a big snafu of hoses and wiring as the newer models have made big advancements in emissions that will leave you dumbfounded. What I did was simply unbolt the intake manifold from the engine, disconnect all wiring, and flip up the intake manifold onto the front windshield during the physical engine swap (see photo). This saved a ton of trouble and I advise you to do the same.







As outlined above the first modification was done to get the AVLS working. However, this was not the only issue I had between my existing and donor motor. Upon installing the engine I turned it on but the engine would not fire and I only smelled a strong odor of gas. This was due to the cam sensor being given a wrong signal as the notches on the new engine’s cam sprocket varied greatly (see photo). Also, since I had the timing covers already off, I noticed that the crank sprocket also varied (see photo) and swapped them out too - while you have that all off, take the time to throw on a lightweight crank pully. One thing worth mentioning is that the hard coolant carrier (directly underneath the intake manifold) of the 2010 engine housed the coolant temperature sensor on the opposite side of my 2004 engine, so that might be advisable to swap. One minor mention goes to the power steering pump: the 2004 pump had a hex head stand-off that the power steering line bolted into; you will notice the newer models may not have this, therefore be sure to carry this over during the swap. Lastly, now that the engine was recording the correct timing and was starting, the loud bang that accompanied the start was found to be that on the rear of the LH cylinder head was an exposed hole where an EGR valve would be placed; since my car had no EGR valve, I simply plugged it with an oil drain plug and used an aftermarket oil drain plug (with magnet). With that, all is done.

I’d like to give credit to the following people for making this swap possible: Scott Pergande, Tyler Branski, Eric Egli, and last but not least the infamous Miles Fox (be sure to check out his YouTube channel for many videos on the wild world of Subaru).
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Last edited by Kampfzentrum; 06-14-2016 at 12:26 PM.
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Old 06-12-2016, 03:15 PM   #2
Kampfzentrum
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Old 06-16-2016, 12:48 AM   #3
Patrick Olsen
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Cool stuff, thanks for posting this up.
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Old 06-17-2017, 07:59 AM   #4
Partypete
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I have a 06 Outback engine I am swapping into my GC for a new open light build. I am looking to run the wiring and ecu from a 06 Impreza.

I assume you swapped the intake because it's wired for your current ecu.

First post! I've been looking at this site for years.
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Old 06-17-2017, 08:02 AM   #5
Kampfzentrum
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Partypete View Post
I have a 06 Outback engine I am swapping into my GC for a new open light build. I am looking to run the wiring and ecu from a 06 Impreza.

I assume you swapped the intake because it's wired for your current ecu.

First post! I've been looking at this site for years.
Finally! Somebody saw this!

Yes, indeed. I did have to use my old intake, you can see in the pics we kind of just flopped it up onto the front windshield. Swapping that out would have been a pain because it seems every year of new Impreza came with most emissions and other crap.

Yup, you got it. Swap away.
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Old 06-17-2017, 08:37 AM   #6
Partypete
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I think I saw your post originally on dirally. Now that I've got everything in front of me I am revisiting all the info.

I am most likely gonna run the intake that is on my motor, but not 100% on that. I am hoping that with the wiring and ecu I won't have to swap that.

Here's a good video I found that might benefit others with i-avls.


Thanks for writing up on the subject. I swear everything I find about NA Subarus leads to "just buy a wrx/sti."
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Old 06-23-2017, 02:46 AM   #7
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Glad you made this post cause I needed it. Throwing a 2010 motor into a 1999 Forester. I would have never thought of the timing teeth on the sprockets.

If somebody else does this:
-you don't need to swap the plastic cam gear. All the gears have the same number of teeth between my '99 and '10 engine.
-the coolant sensor plug may be different depending on the year, but the threads are the same, so swap if the parts are there.
-if your harness doesn't reach the coolant sensor just cut back the wiring harness tape till the correct connection will reach.
-the knock sensor connector might be different too, easy to band-aid.
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Old 12-05-2017, 09:23 AM   #8
Forester06swap
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kampfzentrum View Post


I’ve taken it upon myself to start this write up due to the difficulty in finding any concrete information about the ALVS system and retrofitting it to older Subaru models whose ECUs don’t support the activation of it. For those interested, this write up is for those who have older Imprezas (and other models with the EJ253 engine) prior to MY06 that do not have AVLS (i-Active Valve Lift System; “i” is for Intelligent) installed. Where this write up would be used is in the case of transplanting a newer EJ253 engine into an older vehicle and seeing to it operating as it was meant to. Ideally, I have found that leaving the AVLS alone still makes the vehicle drivable, but for those looking to squeeze a bit more power out of the engine, harnessing the use of AVLS technology can be a bit beneficial.

NOTE: Swapping a newer engine with AVLS will require some modifications to the motor itself (i.e. cam pulley, crankshaft sprocket, etc.) and will be briefly glossed over at the end of this write up. Please see the section below “ENGINE MODIFICATION”.

I have found a bit of information online, most of which came from NASIOC and Teslamaster’s write up on AVLS (which can be found here). This article describes in probably the best way how the system works technically and has been a resource throughout my swap; but, as you can see from the article’s conclusion, Teslamaster states that modifying the AVLS (i.e. specifically when the AVLS kicks in) is not worth it. But for those that would be interested in this article, his conclusion does not concern you, as if you were to be doing this swap you would not even have the AVLS activated. His article states that for those who have a car with AVLS installed and running off of the ECU, it is not beneficial to modify when the AVLS kicks in; but for us who are retrofitting older cars with newer technology, having the AVLS working is definitely worth it. For what it is worth, I refer the reader to this article as it is worth the read in getting to know more about your AVLS system.



Now, as you can see from Teslamaster’s article, the ECU kicks the AVLS on based on RPMs and engine load, but was averaged out to kick on between 1500-2500 RPMs. For the sake of this write up, I will place the RPM level the AVLS will kick on at 2200 RPMs; now, once you have concluded this swap you will be able to adjust the time when the AVLS kicks in, several factors will determine this that I will cover. What basically we will be doing is installing an aftermarket unit (I will refer you to the MSD Digital RPM Activated Window Switch, P/N: 8969, but there are others out there) that will turn on the AVLS based on its monitoring of your engine’s RPMs. This way, the AVLS is able to be activated without an expensive and time-consuming ECU/harness swap. It’s simple, really.

The materials needed to do this is:



  • · MSD Digital RPM Activated Window Switch, P/N: 8969 (1)
  • · Standard automobile relay switch (with terminals 30, 85, 86, and 87)
  • · 18 AWG wire (several dozen feet)
  • · Wire terminal connector kit
  • · Miscellaneous wiring tools (crimping/cutting tool, heat shrink sleeve, etc.)

The first thing you will want to do is find a location where to place your MSD Switch. I liked the idea of mounting it in the vehicle and mounted it where the passenger sun visor was, which enabled me to switch my RPM limits on the go, but others I know have placed them in the glove box and even in the engine bay (not recommended in states that use salt on roads). Once you have installed, you will have to find a 12v power supply to power the unit (through the red wire) and also ground that supply out (black wire) – there should be a OEM grounding point almost anywhere near where you decide to place it (you can consult your vehicle’s FSM for grounding points).

Once you have the MSD Switch powered, you must set it up for the type of engine it will be monitoring. The MSD Switch is able to see a variety of multi-cylindered engines and will have no problem monitoring your Subaru’s RPMs. However, what you may think will be a 4-cylinder setting on your MSD Switch will actually be wrong. Because Subaru motors fire two cylinders at the same time per cycle, the system is referred to as a “waste spark” system and will need to be set up as a 2-cylinder cycle. Setting this on your MSD Switch is quite simple if you consult the OEM manual with should come with your switch and is also available in .pdf form all over the Internet. While you are setting your MSD Switch, set the “RPM on” for 2200 and “RPM off” for 14000 (a limit that your engine should never exceed as you don’t want it to turn off after 2200 RPMs). Now that your switch is set, let’s move on.

Your first difficult task is to get your MSD Switch to see your vehicles RPMs (via the white wire on your switch); to do this you can tap into your ECU’s tachometer wire, but finding this was quite difficult and I scrapped the idea once venturing into the multitude of wires that came from it. I instead went with splicing into one of the wires that powered the engines coil pack; there should be a total of four (4) wires that go into the connector that mates with the coil pack, after some trial and error I found that the blue wire (on my MY04 Impreza TS) was the wire that I needed (your vehicle may have different wire colors and I will almost assume so). Having the MSD Switch now wired, you should be able to see the switch read in real time your RPMs on the digital readout. Having this feature was – for me – a cool factor in having it visibly mounted in the cockpit of my car.

Now, all that is left is wiring up the AVLS system and done, right? Well, to do this right let’s do it right. Technically, you could take the yellow (normally open signal) wire from your MSD unit and connect it to the AVLS terminals, but doing this puts strain on the switch and I recommend bolstering the power supply to the AVLS with a relay switch. For the manner in which we are going to wire up the rest of this, you may tie off the grey (normally closed) wire and tuck it harmlessly away. The wiring to your relay switch will be:

· Terminal 30: 12v power supply (from battery)
· Terminal 85: Fused 12v power supply (from battery)
· Terminal 86: Yellow (normally open) wire from MSD Switch
· Terminal 87: Out-going wire to AVLS terminal on the OSV (Oil Switching Solenoid Valve)

To make sure that you have wired the relay switch up correctly, start up your car and rev the RPMs past the 2200 limit you have set, a friend standing near the relay should be able to hear the click of the relay switch turning on giving you a sign you have wired everything correctly. Having a friend with some electrical experience nearby is important (thanks Scott!), as troubleshooting your system in case it doesn’t appear to be working

Now, as far as the OSV wiring, if you can secure the pigtails from another harness, you are in luck as connecting the wires to the OSV on the block is a bit of a pain. As you should know, there are two total (looking at the engine from the front, one is to the left rear of the RH cylinder head and the other is on the right front of the LH cylinder head) Which terminal to connect to – in my understanding – is irrelevant, as current simply just needs to pass through the OSV. In final, with the opposing terminal you need to ground the power supply.

Testing to see if your AVLS is working is simply relegated to the butt dyno, meaning that you should feel the AVLS kick slightly in around your RPM set limit. You can test with a multimeter the wiring going to the AVLS to make sure there is a signal, but other than that there is no real way (that I know of) to assure that your AVLS is functioning correctly.

Last mention: Because the AVLS is activated by a 300Hz PWM signal from the ECU, it has been said that the OSVs will “burn out” over time. Because of this, it is my advice that you set the “RPM on” limit up to 3200 RPMs; this advice was given to me from a friend who has over 25k miles on his swap and is still running fine. For the EJ253 engine, setting the “RPM on” at 3200 is perfectly reasonable, if you watch when you need the added power, this is a perfect limit and will not be activated at times when unneeded.

ENGINE MODIFICATION: The engine that I put into my 2004 Impreza TS was from a 2010 Impreza 2.5i. To make this work I essentially had to use my existing intake manifold and use it with the new motor; so essentially you have to use just the long block and keep the existing intake manifold and engine subharness. Trying to swap a newer intake manifold will just create a big snafu of hoses and wiring as the newer models have made big advancements in emissions that will leave you dumbfounded. What I did was simply unbolt the intake manifold from the engine, disconnect all wiring, and flip up the intake manifold onto the front windshield during the physical engine swap (see photo). This saved a ton of trouble and I advise you to do the same.







As outlined above the first modification was done to get the AVLS working. However, this was not the only issue I had between my existing and donor motor. Upon installing the engine I turned it on but the engine would not fire and I only smelled a strong odor of gas. This was due to the cam sensor being given a wrong signal as the notches on the new engine’s cam sprocket varied greatly (see photo). Also, since I had the timing covers already off, I noticed that the crank sprocket also varied (see photo) and swapped them out too - while you have that all off, take the time to throw on a lightweight crank pully. One thing worth mentioning is that the hard coolant carrier (directly underneath the intake manifold) of the 2010 engine housed the coolant temperature sensor on the opposite side of my 2004 engine, so that might be advisable to swap. One minor mention goes to the power steering pump: the 2004 pump had a hex head stand-off that the power steering line bolted into; you will notice the newer models may not have this, therefore be sure to carry this over during the swap. Lastly, now that the engine was recording the correct timing and was starting, the loud bang that accompanied the start was found to be that on the rear of the LH cylinder head was an exposed hole where an EGR valve would be placed; since my car had no EGR valve, I simply plugged it with an oil drain plug and used an aftermarket oil drain plug (with magnet). With that, all is done.

I’d like to give credit to the following people for making this swap possible: Scott Pergande, Tyler Branski, Eric Egli, and last but not least the infamous Miles Fox (be sure to check out his YouTube channel for many videos on the wild world of Subaru).
I am for forming an engine swap in my 06 Forester. It has the ej253 with the avls heads. Naturally aspirated. I bought an ej251 in perfect running condition out of an Outback. It does not have the avls heads on it though. What I am wanting to do is to use the ej251 block and couple it with the intake from the ej253. Now I know the crank reluctor wheel and driver side camshaft pulley wheel will have to be swap from the 253 block to the 251. My question is what about the avls heads that are currently on the ej25 3. Well I have to swap the heads from the 253 over to the 2-5-1 as well as the 251 does not have avls? Or should I just attempt to drop the hall ej251 down in the Forester and switch out the wiring harness and ECU as well. As you know the wiring harness and ECU on non avls EJ engines have different connectors than the ecu's that have avls. Someone told me that all I had to do what's stick the entire ej251 down in my Forester and Simply Thai off the connections from the ECU that would have went to the variable timing solenoid and oil sending solenoid on the avls heads? Can you do that will it still run correctly
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Old 12-06-2017, 06:30 PM   #9
wtdash
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-1
Please don't 'quote' the whole post.
Also, you're doing this backwards of the original, so I'd look up about this as it's surely been posted on another Subaru site. The Outback. Legacy, Forester and Impreza used the same NA/non-turbo engines. 'thaing off' (makes me hungry) will most likely leave you multiple CELs as the sensors aren't connected. Probably a 'resistor fix' someone has figured out.



To the OP...sorry this got Hijacked above - Good info. But do we need "several dozen feet"?

Thanks
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Old 02-24-2018, 12:17 PM   #10
93stiImperza
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He will have Cel on and why you say a resistor fix?
My problem is how can I bypass the vvlt on 07 subaru ej253? If anybody can pm/post or pm or post link on this topic that will be great. Also will a open source tuning by reflash edu map will work?
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