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Old 02-28-2006, 03:02 PM   #1
Tronix
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Stage 2 and a lot more.

Default Beginners Guide to AutoX Racing

TIR's Beginner Guide to Autocross

Author: Brent Angevine (Tronix)

This guide was put together using information from various sources ranging from expert tips and testimonials, manufacturers suggestions and my personal experiences with three different clubs I have raced with. Some of this information may not pertain to the club you are racing with, But reading and knowing everything listed here will still be a great start and will make your first experience alot easier. I am putting together this guide in hopes of launching a few people in the right direction and to maximize your autocross experience. In no way should this guide be taken as a rule or regulation. Any information given here is shared information and should be taken as a tip or suggestion. You should use this at your own risk, as the author takes no responsibility to damage or injury caused by following these guidelines.

Definition:
Autocross events are often set up in parking lots or any place with a large enough area of pavement and are all about a driver's ability to accurately and precisely maneuver around an orange cone (pylon) marked course in the fastest time possible. When you are racing, you are racing against the clock. This way you can drive your daily driver car and not have to worry about other people crashing into you. It’s a timed lap event and you often get 4 or more chances of producing a best ET.

Tools required: 1 operational/safe vehicle, 1 licensed driver, 1 Snell (SA, K or M) approved helmet and a roll of masking tape preferably the opposite shade of your car so it will stand out.

Beginners:
I think the toughest part in Autocross or “SOLO 2” racing is getting up the nerve to sign up and just DO IT. THe easiest way is to hook up with an experienced driver so they can “show you the ropes” around the particular club or regional SCCA group. Or you can go to a race where you know someone who will let you ride along with them so you can get an idea of what it’s all about. But if this is not an option and you don’t know anyone than hopefully my tips will help you out.

Step 1) Find out where the local track is. In our town various groups hold their own autocross events ranging from the local Porsche club, Austin Healey club to local sports car club and most definitely, your regional SCCA sanctioned group. You can do internet searches for racing or clubs in your area. If SCCA is the way you want to go then visit:
http://www.scca.com/Inside/Index.asp...gionalSites&~= this will help you locate the region and division you would be racing with.

Don’t worry about becoming a paid SCCA or club member before you race. Your first race will be a learning experience and you can decide after that if you wish to pursue a serious hobby in Solo Racing. Just sign up for the race. Cost usually ranges from $25-$50 per race. Many places allow you to register for races using myautoevents.com or several clubs also allow “walk ups” the day of the race. The key is to get there early so you can and get in before the cut off. Find out when the earliest you can register is and show up!

Step 2) Register your car and get it tech inspected. Showing up at the track you will find many people in one area getting their cars ready (swapping tires, etc..) This is designated as the pit area. Park here and find the registration table. You won’t have to figure out exactly which class you will need to run in right away, but you will need to be assigned to one for lap scheduling reasons. You can spend some time going through the very vaguely defined car classes here:
http://www.scca.com/_filelibrary/Fil...categories.pdf
This will give you a good idea what category your car falls into.

After determining which category your car falls into, now we will decide on your class.

For Stock Class:http://www.scca.com/_Filelibrary/Fil...ionsbymake.pdf

For Street Touring:
http://www.scca.org/_FileLibrary/Fil...nufacturer.pdf

For Street Prepared:
http://www.scca.com/_Filelibrary/Fil...ionsbymake.pdf

Now you have determined the class of your car and don’t worry about accuracy this is just going to be a general grouping because you will be designated as a novice anyway. Your times will not be affecting anyone else so making a mistake in classing your car isn’t that important. You will now put an identifier on the side of your car so the timing/scoring dept can accurately record your times. You will have to pick a number and club members will have first pick, so you may have to modify your car number. Many clubs make you put a 1 in front of your number and/or an “N” after your class designation. So let’s say your class was DSP and your number is 123. You will fashion letters and numbers out of masking tape on the side of your car that are large and clear and able to be read by the course workers and the timing/scoring team. In this case you would make 123 DSPN on the side of your car.

Remove the floor mat from the driver’s side floor and store it in your trunk or another safe place. They don’t want the fast motion of your feet accidentally kicking up a floor mat and causing it to lodge under your brake pedal and not be able to stop.

Now you will need to pass tech inspection. Some groups will come around and inspect your car while it’s waiting in the pits, others will make you drive your car up to a designated tech inspection area to get it inspected. Find out how your group does it when you are signing in at the registration table.

Basically tech inspection is just a safety inspection, they are making sure you have everything you need and your car is safe to race. They are looking for loose lug nuts, loose battery cables or battery tie downs, proper safety restraints (belts or harnesses) an approved helmet, NO floor mat on the drivers side. No radar detectors suction cupped to the windshield that can fall off causing distraction, etc. So go over your car, make sure everything inside is secure and there are no items in your backseat floors that are going to be tossed around in the car. Ensure that overall everything is in tight and working order before getting inspected.

Step 3) Familiarize yourself with the track. Your group should have a designated time before racing that drivers can walk the track. Use this time wisely. Figure out where the starting point is (ask if you can’t tell) and begin here. You will use this exercise to make mental notes on the layout of the course. For a beginner the course looks very confusing. I assure you once you know the basic principles of a course it will become much easier to read. Again, if you have any questions it’s always best to ask those around you. Many people will be happy to show you around. Here is some basic information that will help you determine the direction of the course.

The course is often laid out with straight aways, long drawn out turns, loop backs, boxes, dips and slaloms. It is more like an obstacle course than a road track. We will take a look at some basic course layouts so you can better understand what you will be looking at.

Cones: You will notice a sea of cones in your course and to make heads or tails out of them you will need to know a couple of things.

A cone lying on its side is a directional cone. These cones will let you know which side of the standing cone you will need to be on. For instance:



The above cone formation means you will need to be on the left side of the standing cone, and these cones indicate you will need to pass on the right:





Here is a basic overhead view of a small section of a course:















Can you tell where you need to go by looking at the diagram? If not, here is an illustration:









If you come to a slalom and there is no directional cone, it means you can enter the slalom whichever way you wish. However the way you enter depends on the direction your car needs to be traveling in when you leave the slalom. For instance:


Your best choice will be to enter the slalom from the left side so that when you end your car is in proper position to set up for the next turn. You can see what happens if you enter the slalom wrong:



You can still make it through but its going to take more time and skill to make the maneuver. So you always figure out ahead of time which direction you need to enter a slalom.

These are just a few instructions that will help you navigate your way through a track. Often before a race begins the club will hold a “novice lap” in which an experienced driver will drive the course at a very slow speed (10mph) and any new drivers will follow along so they know how the course is laid out. This doesn’t happen every time so the better prepared you are, the more enjoyable your race is going to be.

Step 4) Worker Assignments. They will hold working assignment sign-ups at some point during the morning before the race begins. For the beginner its best to be assigned a corner out in the middle of the course so you have the advantage of watching other racers to see where the problem areas are, and to hopefully gain some insight into the best way to run the course. Everyone has to work, sometimes it’s not a fun task to stand out in the baking sun (don’t forget to bring sun block and sunglasses) for an entire heat. But workers are essential and without them we couldn’t hold these events. They should give you basic instructions on the tools assigned to you. You may receive a radio and/or a flag. If they do not instruct you on how to perform your corner duties here are some basic tips to get you ready.

A) Make sure you position yourself back and out of the way of any harm. Stay clear of an angle where an out of control driver may come out of a turn too hot and slide out of control into your path.

B) If a driver knocks a cone over call in that cone using a radio or hold the cone in the air to the nearest person with a radio so they can call the deduction into the scoring booth. To qualify as a deduction there is a usually a chalk outline of where that cone was originally placed, if the cone is laying on its side it counts as a deduction. If the cone is upright and any piece of the cone is still touching the original position (say someone just nudges the cone 6” left) then you should just reposition the cone where it was and wave it off so that nobody calls the cone in as a deduction. Here is a diagram of what to call in, and what not to call in:



C) If a person misses a gate, obstacle, cone or goes the wrong direction through an obstacle then his/her run is disqualified or “DNF’d”. A racer is allowed to veer off course and then back on course as long as they do not miss any cones and they enter the course back on the same path that they left it.

D) If a person skids out of control, comes to a stop or breaks down, the person running behind them will need to be flagged. This will tell the driver that someone ahead of him has had a problem and they need to abort their run and slow down to a stop to wait for the person in front of them to get their vehicle out of the way. The person who is flagged will never be penalized, and will be allowed to make up that run again.

There are terms you may hear over the radio such as “the track is hot” this means stay out of the way, cars are entering the course. Do not sacrifice yourself for a cone. Be safe out there and make the best of your time working.

see next post..
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Last edited by Tronix; 02-28-2006 at 03:28 PM.
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:03 PM   #2
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(cont.)
Step 5) Its Race time! Most races are broken up into heats. For instance: One race consists of 3 Heats. Heat 1 will include all Stock class cars and Street Mod cars. Heat 2 will be all Street Prepared Cars and Heat 3 will be Street Touring, Modified and open wheeled cars. They usually try to break up the groups and make them even. Hopefully you will get to at least watch one heat, or work one heat before you race so you have a good idea of how the race flows.

You usually get in your car and report to the “staging area”. This will be the area where you will line up to determine the order in which you will run, and after your run you will return to this area to get back in line and ready for your next run. On an average race you will get at least 4 runs. You may get more than that based on the amount of racers that day or amount of time left.

For our purposes we will say you get 4 runs today. Before you start remember that its best to run slow, take it easy and LEARN the basics before you go all out. Experienced members and staff will much rather see you out there running slow then getting wild and knocking over cones. If you are new, and you appear out of control you could be asked to leave and maybe not even come back again. If you are running a manual shift vehicle in the first straight you should be able to get up enough speed and rpm’s to shift into 2nd gear. Once you reach second gear I would just leave it in 2nd for the whole remainder of the race. You shouldn’t ever have to shift to third as your top speed probably wont pass 50mph. If you are running an automatic car place the gear select in 2nd and launch and race the entire race in that gear.

For your first run it’s always a good idea to take it nice and easy and make sure you are following the course correctly. I have seen people go out there and race as hard as they can right away and not realize that they keep making a mistake on one of the turns and kept DNF’ing and not even get a time for the day.

Your second run (provided you followed the course right the first time) will be a run where you start to take the turns a little faster and start getting to know the thresholds of your car. This is something you simply can not master by driving it every day. The degree of turn and the speeds at which you will be taking them is not explored by driving the car on any road in the U.S. so this will be new to you.

Your third run you should experiment with your braking and turning. The best tip I can give you is to remember to enter a turn slow, but come out of it fast. So ease up and brake right before coming into a turn and as you are exiting a turn start accelerating.

For your fourth run you can open it up even a little more. By now you should know the course and have a good idea of how your car is handling it. Be smart and safe. You get to race as a beginner or “novice” for at least 3 races. After that you will have to actually do your homework and make sure your car is properly classed and that you are ready for membership and start collecting points.

Now you have finished your racing and your work assignment. Usually times are posted after all racing is complete and you can hang around to see what your times were and watch the awards ceremonies.

The biggest things to remember when starting out are:
A) Driver makes all the difference in the world. In your first few races it’s not going to matter what kind of a car you are driving, what modifications you have done or what tires you are running because getting the experience is key. Seat time almost always trumps mods. If you are ready to start making changes to the setup of the car then you are ready to advance on to the intermediate guide.
B) Go in Slow, come out fast. Always slow down before entering a turn, slowing down in the middle of a turn could cause you to spin out. So always remember: gas,brake,turn,gas.
C) Don’t be discouraged if you are running 10 seconds behind the leaders, we all went through it, and it takes time. Experience is key and will always make a bigger difference in time than any modifications you make.
D) If you hit a cone, continue on the race as if nothing happened. A cone will often cost you at minimum 1 second deduction in your time. So if you hit a cone there’s a good chance that’s not going to be your best run, but go ahead and finish out your run to gain experience for the next run.

I hope this guide helps you understand the basics and prepares you for racing. If I would have had a guide like this when I started I think I would have had an easier time and learned a lot quicker.

Once you get a few races under your belt you are ready to begin preparing your car and getting to know the tricks of the trade, its then time to move on to our Intermediate guide.
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:12 PM   #3
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awesome write up, permission to post other places?
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:16 PM   #4
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Before reposting, I'm working on some comments that might need to be re-incorporated.

The 1st one being.... it's not 'racing'. You will not find that word in the rule book, nor on any SCCA Solo 2 sites.

More to come when I'm done.
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:26 PM   #5
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Excellent post. Motion for sticky
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:27 PM   #6
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Yeah you can post it wherever you like. and if you have some changes to make to it I dont mind, just give me some writing credit. You can always swap "event" for "race". I didnt really see it as that important since there are so many clubs out there you can race with that arent scca sanctioned.

I just wanted to toss something together for those who are wanting to give it a run this year. My intermediate guide will be a more indepth guide into tire pressures, alignments, mods, and general car setup.

much more to come.

-Tronix(cone head)GT
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:35 PM   #7
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Great primer.
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:49 PM   #8
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+1 for sticky. thats awesome. I like the cone part the best.. wanna make one for rallycross too?
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Old 02-28-2006, 03:50 PM   #9
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Quote:
Originally Posted by PJC1909
Excellent post. Motion for sticky
I agree. I am planning on starting some auto-xing this year and this guide is very helpful to me....being nervous and all.
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Old 02-28-2006, 04:12 PM   #10
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This seems more geared to how your region does events, which is very different from most of the events I've been to (about 15 different clubs here in New England and abroad. I would try and stay away from absolutes if you have limited to no experience in running with different clubs when it comes to how an event is put on. Many of the things you've written are from the aspect of your club (and I bet its a smallish one at that)

1)
Quote:
Don’t worry about becoming a paid SCCA or club member before you race.
Change paid to paying... no one is paid anything.

2)
Quote:
You won’t have to figure out exactly which class you will need to run in right away, but you will need to be assigned to one for lap scheduling reasons.
You need to know what class you are going to run in before you register so use the guides above or rule book to determine. Talk to others and many regions have a novice chair that you can talk to to help you get the right classification.

3) About novices.. not all regions allow for a novice grouping/class (Most do tho).

4)
Quote:
Many clubs make you put a 1 in front of your number and/or an “N” after your class designation.
All regions handle this differently. Seek out someone who has been doing this for years with the club you are going to run with to find the right designation.

5)
Quote:
So let’s say your class was DSP and your number is 123. You will fashion letters and numbers out of masking tape on the side of your car that are large and clear and able to be read by the course workers and the timing/scoring team. In this case you would make 123 DSPN on the side of your car.
Check with the region to see if masking tape or paper numbers are allowed. Again, some larger regions will not accept them. Also, most regions reserve "1" in front of 2 digits for dual driven cars. So using 123 is a bad example.

6)
Quote:
Remove the floor mat from the driver’s side floor and store it in your trunk or another safe place. They don’t want the fast motion of your feet accidentally kicking up a floor mat and causing it to lodge under your brake pedal and not be able to stop.
Also, remove anything loose in the car that's not bolted down. Empty the center console. Empty the change tray. Empty the glove box. Everything... out.

7)
Quote:
Many people will be happy to show you around.
Some regions also have a novice walk-through that starts about 15-30 min before the drivers meeting. Be there, on time. Ask at registration if the club offers one.

8)
Quote:
A cone lying on its side is a directional cone. These cones will let you know which side of the standing cone you will need to be on
It is called a 'pointer' cone. It POINTS to the direction you must go around.

9) Starting at the top left, remove the 3rd cone down on the left of the page (the one to the back of the pointer cone). That cone is extraneous, and if I were running the course, I would be confused by that cone as to what to do. Do I run it before or after the pointer cone? Remove it.

10)
Quote:
These are just a few instructions that will help you navigate your way through a track. Often before a race begins the club will hold a “novice lap” in which an experienced driver will drive the course at a very slow speed (10mph) and any new drivers will follow along so they know how the course is laid out. This doesn’t happen every time so the better prepared you are, the more enjoyable your race is going to be.
News to me. See earlier novice walk through reference. I've never, ever seen a drive through at an auto-x. That would be the exception, than the norm.

11) A big note that needs to be put in: NEVER turn your back to a car. A not so big note, that still needs to be in there: As cars are sent every 15-20 seconds, and some courses have multiple cars on track, if someone displaces a cone, the worker needs to hustle to reset the cone. Run out to the cone, pick it up, re-set it squarely in the marked box, get out of the way for the next car.... ASAP. Remember, be aware of other cars on the course. If you cannot get the cone re-set in time safely before the next car, get off the course, and take the cone with you. It's up to the driver to realize the cone wasn't there, and they can get a re-run if they notice. This is not your problem. Safety of the course workers is paramount... so if you can't get the cone reset in time, be safe and vacate the course.

Help from this comes from knowing your area.

Also: When you go out to work the course, walk around the section of the course you're working and check for misplaced cones. This also helps in that you come familiar with finding the box where a cone needs to be reset if one becomes stuck under a car and taken with the car.

12)
Quote:
D) If a person skids out of control, comes to a stop or breaks down, the person running behind them will need to be flagged. This will tell the driver that someone ahead of him has had a problem and they need to abort their run and slow down to a stop to wait for the person in front of them to get their vehicle out of the way. The person who is flagged will never be penalized, and will be allowed to make up that run again.
Hence the reason why hustle is needed. Sometimes, if a car spins/slides, but gets going again within a few seconds, no flag is needed. Be aware of the surroundings. If in doubt tho, throw the flag on your section of the course.

13)
Quote:
You usually get in your car and report to the “staging area”. This
It's called 'Grid'.

14)
Quote:
For our purposes we will say you get 4 runs today. Before you start remember that its best to run slow, take it easy and LEARN the basics before you go all out. Experienced members and staff will much rather see you out there running slow then getting wild and knocking over cones. If you are new, and you appear out of control you could be asked to leave and maybe not even come back again. If you are running a manual shift vehicle in the first straight you should be able to get up enough speed and rpm’s to shift into 2nd gear. Once you reach second gear I would just leave it in 2nd for the whole remainder of the race. You shouldn’t ever have to shift to third as your top speed probably wont pass 50mph. If you are running an automatic car place the gear select in 2nd and launch and race the entire race in that gear
Ask for an instructor if available. They can ride with you to give you pointers in what to look for... many regions have them available... all you have to do is ask. There will be other events later in the year you can work on going faster (still, you can ask for an instructor then too). For all your runs, you can ask for an instructor to get the biggest bang for the buck. They will be more than happy to help!!!

Add onto that, if you get a chance, ask an instructor for a ride in their car. Again, most will be happy to show you what it really should feel like.

15) Your description of 1st through 4th runs are off. The driver should be working on what they need to do to become more comfortable and relaxed, not a regimen of "this should be done during X run." Instructors can greatly assist and assess the driver in working with weaknesses (and strengths) I feel, without an instructor, you don't know what you're doing wrong and will never get faster unless you are just born with the talent.

16)
Quote:
You get to race as a beginner or “novice” for at least 3 races. After that you will have to actually do your homework and make sure your car is properly classed and that you are ready for membership and start collecting points.
Your region maybe. Some regions allow for a whole year in novice and have a separate trophy at end of year for it. Depends on the region.

17)
Quote:
Now you have finished your racing and your work assignment. Usually times are posted after all racing is complete and you can hang around to see what your times were and watch the awards ceremonies.
Some regions/clubs to a few runs in the morning, and a few in the afternoon. Don't leave/pack up unless you're absolutely sure you're not going to run again in the afternoon. (That would mean you may also have to work again too).

18)
Quote:
D) If you hit a cone, continue on the race as if nothing happened. A cone will often cost you at minimum 1 second deduction in your time. So if you hit a cone there’s a good chance that’s not going to be your best run, but go ahead and finish out your run to gain experience for the next run.
2 seconds is the norm. If you find yourself in a slide or a spin.. put both feet in! (foot on clutch/foot on brake) and keep them that way until you're stopped. Don't be a hero and try to save it. Even the best spin. Come to a complete stop, gather your wits and proceed at around 1/2 speed through the rest of the course. Auto-x is very safe where courses are generally designed not to come in contact with sold object. Just putting both feet in at that spot you lost control means if there are any objects, odds are good you won't hit any. If you try to save the spin, all bets are off and you can decrease safe distances to sold object VERY quickly. Don't be that person we have to read on a forum that got into an accident at one of the most safe event because you tried to save it.

Those are my comments. Overall, pretty good.. but it seems you have only been doing this for a short period of time, and have only been doing it locally to your region/club. Try different clubs... even if it means a hotel some nights. It's worth it!

--kC
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Old 02-28-2006, 04:14 PM   #11
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Great write-up. I'm going to forward this to the other BoD members in our region and see if there is a way we can incorperate this into our current operations.
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Old 02-28-2006, 04:19 PM   #12
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its called a car control event because for insurance purposes primarily if I do recall.

Anywho just 2 comments for you:
1.) Never turn your back on a car should be added to the course working part.
2.) Remove ALL loose items including floormats from the vehicle. The only exception is if the floormats are secured to the vehicle floor like in many high end european cars. Any loose item can become a projectile in the event of an accident.
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Old 02-28-2006, 05:19 PM   #13
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There are tons of little nitpicks or things that could be added like "walk the course like you plan on driving the course" or "when walking the course check the ground for nails/screw or other debris that could damage tire etc" but overall I think that is an excellent primer for a novice. Perhaps being a little less specific about things like numbers would make this a little more generalizable.
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Old 02-28-2006, 07:19 PM   #14
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Nice post. Very helpful.

I read this one before my first event, though it is still biased to a specific region... http://www.tirerack.com/features/solo2/handbook.htm
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Old 02-28-2006, 11:39 PM   #15
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Awesome write-up!!!
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Old 03-01-2006, 01:15 AM   #16
hillman
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Quote:
Come to a complete stop, gather your wits and proceed at around 1/2 speed through the rest of the course.
Half speed is for finishing a run where you got red-flagged, not after a spin. After a spin, continue driving normally. It's generally considered bad form to spin twice on the same run, so you might back it off *a little*, but you better stay well above half speed, or you'll cause the guy behind you to get red-flagged.

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It POINTS to the direction you must go around.
It is always supposed to... but if the course was designed by someone who hasn't read Roger Johnson's course design guide, it may not. We enforce this rule religiously on our courses, but not all Regions do, unfortunately.
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Old 03-01-2006, 10:14 AM   #17
MrDestructo
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psssttt....

It's not "racing"....

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Old 03-01-2006, 07:40 PM   #18
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I'm sorry if I'm not reading this right. but wouldn't that path DNF you? you "miss" a turn at end. I could be wrong, I'm still a novice at AutoX.

-patrick
cones are scared of me
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Old 03-01-2006, 08:50 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by culturedetox


I'm sorry if I'm not reading this right. but wouldn't that path DNF you? you "miss" a turn at end. I could be wrong, I'm still a novice at AutoX.

-patrick
cones are scared of me
The slolom is just the three cones. Finding the "missed" turn on each slolom is a key part of the course walk.
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Old 03-02-2006, 11:23 AM   #20
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IMHO, from a course design perspective, the optional-entry slalom shown would make a more interesting problem if the course went sharp left after the gate with pointer cones at the top.
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Old 03-02-2006, 11:26 AM   #21
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Quote:
Originally Posted by leecea
IMHO, from a course design perspective, the optional-entry slalom shown would make a more interesting problem if the course went sharp left after the gate with pointer cones at the top.
I'd still enter it the same way as it allows you to get to the backside of the right pointer cone after the slalom easier to open up the left turn. (or are you saying the left pointer cone is the apex to the left?)

One more important thing... those two pointer cones should be removed as it's a gate... you shouldn't have two pointers laying down like that becayse pointers should illustrate turns or directions for apexes.. not for 2 cone gates.
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Old 03-02-2006, 11:50 AM   #22
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I didn't have a particular thing in mind other than thinking that, depending on how the course looked, going to the right of the final slalom cone might make for a WOT left sweeper whereas going to the left of the final slalom cone would force you to negotiate a tighter left turn. As you said, it depends on exactly where the apex is and what comes after it.

Someone in our region (Corey?) seems good at designing slalom elements that make you think about the entry-slalom-exit sequence holostically to get the best line.
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Old 03-02-2006, 01:49 PM   #23
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Quote:
Originally Posted by leecea
Someone in our region (Corey?) seems good at designing slalom elements that make you think about the entry-slalom-exit sequence holostically to get the best line.


Corey #89 STS
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Old 03-02-2006, 05:24 PM   #24
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For those with automatic transmissions, be aware that moving the gear selection to 2nd gear may mean that you'll start in 2nd gear, not 1st.
This is usually a design feature to allow the car to get moving in slippery conditions.
It may not be the best way to get moving in autocross because you'll crawl off the line.

Otherwise, the writeup + comments are great!
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Old 03-02-2006, 09:37 PM   #25
Patrick L
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Another word of advise. If you not hitting cones, you not trying hard enough.
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